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Fade-In (Revised 2020)

Paul Théberge

Paul Theberge is a Professor cross-appointed to the Institute for Comparative Studies in Literature, Art and Culture (where he was formerly Canada Research Chair and Director) and to the School for Studies in Art and Culture (Music) at Carleton University, Canada. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...The term ‘fade-in’ is used to describe the process of gradually increasing the loudness of an audio signal from silence. In music recording, a fade-in at the beginning of a song is rarely used, partly because the technique sounds artificial...

Rhythm (Riddim, Rydim)

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...To a large degree, reggae revolves around the concept of ‘rhythm’ (‘riddim,’ ‘rydim’ – the orthography varies). Often described as a bass line or a combination of a bass line and a drum pattern, a ‘rhythm’ may also be conceived in terms...

Air Guitar

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...‘Air guitar’ is the term for an imaginary guitar that a person pretends to play, often to recorded music or to live music when excited by a performance. Since the instrument is imaginary, the person is playing ‘air.’ Air-guitar playing...

Bottleneck Guitar

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...Commonly associated with rural acoustic blues guitar styles, bottleneck guitar is a variation of the slide guitar technique. It is similar to the Hawaiian guitar technique and was possibly influenced by it, but it probably derived from...

Busk/Busking

Paul Oliver

Paul Oliver is a Fellow of Oxford Brookes University. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...‘Busking’ was originally a cant, or underworld, term used of pirates and others who traversed the seas and cities seeking illicit gains from nefarious practises. Early in the nineteenth century, ‘busking’ referred to the selling of obscene...

Playing Clean

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...‘Playing clean’ might seem to be the opposite of ‘playing dirty,’ but it has never become such a widely used term in music criticism. ‘Playing clean’ is generally used to denote the precision with which big band or orchestral musicians...

Dub Plates/Specials

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...In reggae, the terms ‘dub plates’ and ‘specials’ refer to custom-made 10” (25 cm) acetates featuring exclusive mixes of songs for use on sound systems. An understudied phenomenon, the practise of ‘cutting dubs’ is one of the defining...

Frailing

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...‘Frailing’ (sometimes ‘flailing,’ ‘thrashing,’ ‘sawmill style,’ ‘rapping,’ ‘knocking’ or ‘claw hammer’) is a generic term for a range of ‘old-time,’ five-string banjo-playing styles, all considered traditional in the southeastern United...

Playing Hot

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...‘Playing hot’ derives from the various meanings of ‘hot’ in popular music and jazz. The term was used in tune titles from the ragtime era onward to denote a snappy, syncopated theme. Some female blues singers were known as ‘Red-Hot Mamas...

Playing Inside

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...‘Playing inside’ is the antonym of the jazz term ‘playing outside.’ The terminology emerged during the development of free jazz in the 1960s, and a player who ‘plays inside’ is one who remains within the harmonic, metrical and scalar...