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Synchronization (2)

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...‘Synchronization,’ in terms of the cinema, refers to the process of perfectly coordinating sound with an image for the exhibition of a motion picture. The practise of synchronization is as old as cinema itself: the test film that inventor...

—Nimbus 9 Studio (Canada)

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume I : Media, Industry and Society

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...Toronto’s Nimbus 9 Studio developed from a production company of the same name, which was originally formed in 1967 by Canadian jingle writers Jack Richardson, Alan Macmillan, Ben McPeek and Peter Clayton. Over the next few years...

Hi-Fi (FFRR) (Revised 2019)

Paul Théberge

Paul Theberge is a Professor cross-appointed to the Institute for Comparative Studies in Literature, Art and Culture (where he was formerly Canada Research Chair and Director) and to the School for Studies in Art and Culture (Music) at Carleton University, Canada. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume I : Media, Industry and Society

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...‘Hi-fi,’ the abbreviated form of ‘high fidelity,’ is a term that refers to any sound recording that exhibits extended frequency and dynamic range. Used as early as the 1930s, the term came into widespread use during the late 1940s and,...

—Guillaume Tell Studios (France) (Revised 2020)

Olivier Julien

Olivier Julien is a lecturer in the history and musicology of popular music at Paris-Sorbonne University, France. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume I : Media, Industry and Society

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...Based in Suresnes, Guillaume Tell Studios were opened in 1985 by sound engineer Roland Guillotel (hence the name ‘Guillaume Tell’ [‘William Tell’], which is the result of a play on words with the name ‘Guillotel’). Within just a few years...

—Bokoor Recording Studio (Ghana) (Revised 2020)

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume I : Media, Industry and Society

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...Bokoor (Cool) Studio was opened in 1982 by John Collins at his father’s farm at Ofankor near Accra, Ghana. (The word ‘Bokoor’ in Akan means ‘coolness’ or ‘calmness.’) Collins had been managing a Ghanaian guitar band of the same name...

—Harry J Studios (Jamaica)

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume I : Media, Industry and Society

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...Harry J Studios (also Harry J. Studios) of Kingston, Jamaica was established in 1971 by Jamaican record producer Harry Johnson, mainly on profits from 1969-71 reggae hit singles issued on his Harry J label but recorded in studios owned...

Mixing (Revised 2020)

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...Denoting the manipulation and balancing of sounds within live musical performances, studio or computer recording projects or in post-production refinement, mixing determines the relative prominence and timbral character of sounds...

Equalizer (Revised 2020)

Paul Théberge

Paul Theberge is a Professor cross-appointed to the Institute for Comparative Studies in Literature, Art and Culture (where he was formerly Canada Research Chair and Director) and to the School for Studies in Art and Culture (Music) at Carleton University, Canada. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

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Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume II : Performance and Production

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...An equalizer (often referred to by its abbreviated form, ‘EQ’) is an electronic device used to selectively cut or boost audio frequencies. Electronic adjustment of broad frequency bands was employed in radio and sound reinforcement as early...

Eight-Track Cartridge (Revised 2019)

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume I : Media, Industry and Society

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...The eight-track cartridge (also known as an ‘eight-track’ or an ‘eight-track tape’) was the most successful of a number of ready-threaded tape media developed in the United States from the late 1950s. Issuing prerecorded music on open-reel...

Frame (Revised 2019)

Paul Théberge

Paul Theberge is a Professor cross-appointed to the Institute for Comparative Studies in Literature, Art and Culture (where he was formerly Canada Research Chair and Director) and to the School for Studies in Art and Culture (Music) at Carleton University, Canada. Author affiliation details are correct at time of print publication.

Search for publications

Bloomsbury Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World Volume I : Media, Industry and Society

Continuum, 2003

Encyclopedia Articles

...A frame is the smallest temporal unit used in the synchronization of audio, film and video equipment. Used as part of a standardized time code scheme of hours, minutes, seconds and frames, the frame usually corresponds to a single unit...